How is GLM’s performance in CUDA?

October 28th, 2014

I’m working on a little ray tracing CUDA project right now and found out, that GLM also works in that environment. But soon I ran into performance issues and was looking for the culprit. While it certainly isn’t only GLM, it still slowed things down.

I decided to make some quick performance tests and here are the results:

  • Matrix multiplications are 4 times slower compared to my custom one liner.
  • Dot and cross products of vectors are roughly 30% faster than the implementation found in the cuda samples (helper_math.h)

I used a GForce GTX 550 Ti, CUDA 6.5 and GLM 0.9.5.4 on linux for the test.

Hopefully the people behind GLM can fix it quickly as it is really a neat library. I submitted a bug report.

In case you want to see or even edit the source code of the tests, it lies on bitbucket, feel free to commit any changes : )

Edit:
We were able to fix the performance problem in glm’s bug tracker. After aligning glm::vec4 properly, the matrix multiplication is almost equal and other functions (dot and cross) got even faster.
time for cuda glm (matrix): 233 milliseconds
time for cuda helper math (matrix): 226 milliseconds
time for cuda glm (dot): 185 milliseconds
time for cuda helper math (dot): 302 milliseconds
time for cuda glm (cross): 46 milliseconds
time for cuda helper math (cross): 162 milliseconds

Global illumination rendering using path tracing and bidirectional path tracing

June 29th, 2014

This year I started a course on Advanced Computer Graphics in Aalto University by Jaakko Lehtinen. The focus was on methods for global illumination (GI). In a nutshell, global illumination means more realistic lighting compared to “traditional”, direct lighting, where light is reflected by all surfaces (including diffuse ones). Therefore the shading includes indirect light, colour bleeding, caustics etc. Think of a room with only one window and no additional light, the wall with the window will be also illuminated, but only by light that was reflected from the floor and other walls.

There are many methods of implementing GI, for instance photon mapping, instant radiosity, path tracing and bidirectional path tracing or the quite involved method of Metropolis light transport (MLT). It was obligatory to implement path tracing, but I implemented bidirectional path tracing in addition. As a bonus, I implemented both of the methods on the graphics card using the OptiX Framework from NVIDIA, but please don’t make the same mistake of using OptiX.

Path tracing

Path tracing means tracing a path from the camera, bouncing off of surfaces in a random direction, and doing so until the ray hits the light. On every bounce the reflectance function is used to calculate the amount of reflected light. For instance a red surface would reflect only red light, a white surface all of it and a black one nothing. Naturally one sample is not enough, several samples are taken per pixel and the average gives the actual colour. This results in an unbiased estimation of the colour at the pixel. The technical term for this is Monte Carlo integration.

There are many ways to speed up the convergence, I implemented the following (some of them reused for the bidirectional path tracer):

  • At every bounce one additional ray is shot into the direction of a light. This is especially important if the light source is small and hitting it randomly has a small probability. In order not to add the energy from the light twice, a random hit should be ignored.
  • The randomly reflected ray should not be sampled according to an uniform distribution, but to a distribution matching the reflectance function and a geometrical term (importance sampling). This gets even more important with a micro-facet model, which was used to simulate partly reflective surfaces (the same model was used for the normal path tracer and the bidirectional one).
  • Numbers from a random number generator tend to cluster, which is not optimal for Monte Carlo. A Low-discrepancy sequence is better, because the area of integration is covered more evenly. The Wikipedia Article about the Halton sequence shows the difference.

Bidirectional path tracing

Difference between bidirectional and normal path tracing (from Veach's PhD thesis).

Difference between bidirectional and normal path tracing (from Veach’s PhD thesis).

The idea of this method is quite simple, but the implementation is involved. Normal path tracing sometimes has difficulties to sample the light, especially when there are caustics or the light is a bit hidden as it is in the scene above. The reason in both cases is that it can’t be sampled directly (shooting a ray into the direction of the light) and hitting it randomly is improbable. More generally, normal path tracing has difficulties to sample important paths in certain situations, resulting in a noisy image.

Different bidirectional sampling techniques, taken from the Mitsuba documentation.

Different bidirectional sampling techniques, taken from the Mitsuba documentation.

Bidirectional path tracing shoots rays from both directions, from the light and from the camera. This results in two paths consisting of vertices, the light and the eye/camera path. Then each camera vertex is connected to each of the light vertices, forming different paths for transporting light. Eric Veach calls them bidirectional sampling techniques. These techniques have different “fields of expertise”, meaning that certain techniques are only efficient for certain effects. The figure on the right shows a collection of such sampling techniques.

In order to compile them into an image, they are weighted and added up. Computing the weight is a bit complex, but basically it’s computing the probability of generating the specific path divided by the sum of generating any path with vertices at the same positions. This results in switching off the techniques for effects that they can’t sample efficiently and therefore results in an image with less noise. This can be observed in the bottom part of the figure on the top right. The technical term is multiple importance sampling and is also covered in depth in Veach’s thesis.

After implementing the base of the algorithm with perfectly diffuse surfaces, I also added perfectly refractive and reflective surfaces as well as micro facet type surfaces (math taken from here).

Sub Surface Scattering

Finally I also implemented sub surface scattering. This book contains an excellent explanation of it (the papers (1, 2) by Jensen et al. aren’t so good in my opinion). I chose the accelerated version of the algorithm. This means that I have an octree containing surface points of cached irradiance. It seemed like this is not so cool as expected, the cache needs a lot of space in memory and the objects are lacking the montecarlo noise, which makes them look a bit odd. Blender’s renderer, Cycles, also doesn’t use the acceleration structure, instead they sample the surface directly. If I ever have to implement SSS another time, I’ll do it the Blender way. But for this project I chose to use a hack: In order to fix the unusual look, I mixed in the normal diffuse reflection. So a SSS surface is now 50% SSS and 50% perfectly diffuse.

Results

Because I implemented so many features, I didn’t have enough time to choose nice scenes.

There is one Pangolin, based on a model made by my sister:

Rendering of a Pangolin

The body contains a term for SSS, it filled up the video memory almost completely: 96%.

then there is the famous Sponza:

Sponza, featuring a simple path tracer and diffuse surfaces

Sponza, featuring a simple path tracer and diffuse surfaces

and finally a demo scene for the bidirectional tracer:

Bidirectional Test Scene

The glass was modeled by me, the rest are primitives from Blender. The scene features caustics, reflective and refractive surfaces, micro-facet model surfaces, some lights and diffuse surfaces.

Code

I was asked to provide the code. Since the project is based on the OptiX Samples framework and the framework has a proprietary license, I can’t give you the full project. Instead I made a diff to the sample directory provided with OptiX 3.0 (as this was the current version when I started coding).

To make it work you need:
1. download OptiX 3.0
2. apply the patch, under Linux it should be possible with the patch tool, something similar should exist on windows
3. if you want to compile and execute my code, download and compile Assimp and FreeImage (the dll’s and header files are assumed to be in folders next to the project folder)
4. follow the instructions in the readme file.

If you have any questions or problems with compiling, feel free to contact me. Preferable via the answer function, so others can also benefit..

Here is the patch.

Why you should never use NVIDIA OptiX: bugs

May 18th, 2014

In my most recent project, I implemented a GPU path and bidirectional path tracer. I already previously used OptiX for my bachelor thesis, and I thought it is a good idea to use it also for this. I mean, it was created for ray tracing, so it should be predestined for such kind of GPU application.

One of the biggest advantages for me were the reliable and fast acceleration structures, which are crucial for ray tracing. But it proved to cause more pain than benefit due to several bugs. And the overall speed was not that great in the end, probably due to lacking optimisation in my code, which in turn is at least partly caused by lacking profilers (which would be available for CUDA).

But the big issue were really the bugs, which prevented me actively from implementing stuff. Some of the bugs are totally ridiculous and don’t get fixed..

I already encountered the first bug when coding for the bachelor thesis 2 years ago. Unfortunately I ignored it and decided again on OptiX. There is a special printf function, which takes into account the massively parallel architecture of the graphics card. For instance, it is possible to limit the printing just to one pixel. But, ehm

// the following line works:
rtPrintf("asdf\n");

// on the contrary the following two don't
rtPrintf("asdf\n");
rtPrintf("asdf\n");

The latter crashes with

OptiX Error: Invalid value (Details: Function “RTresult _rtContextLaunch2D(RTcontext, unsigned int, RTsize, RTsize)” caught exception: Error in rtPrintf format string: “”, [7995632])

The difference is really only in calling the rtPrintf once or twice with the same text. Sometimes it could be even a different text and sometimes it worked with the same text. I reduced the code to a minimal example in order to eliminated possible stack corruption, but to no avail. This problem was
reported on the NVIDIA forum in June 2013. It’s possible to use stdio’s printf in conjunction with some ‘if’ guards as a workaround, as proposed in the forum.

The second one is also connected to rtPrintf:

RT_PROGRAM void pathtrace_camera() {
   BiDirSubPathVertex lightVertices[2];
   lightVertices[0].existing = false;
   lightVertices[1].existing = false;

   for(unsigned int i=0; i<2; i++) {
      sampleLightPath();
      if(!(lightVertices[i].existing)) break;
   }
   // rtPrintf("something\n");
   sampleEye();

   output_buffer[launch_index] = make_float4(1.f, 1.f, 1.f, 1.f);
}

This code would crash on two tested operating systems (Windows 7 and Linux) and on two different computers (my own workstation and one from the uni).

OptiX Error: Unknown error (Details: Function “RTresult _rtContextLaunch2D(RTcontext, unsigned int, RTsize, RTsize)” caught exception: Encountered a CUDA error: Kernel launch returned (700): Launch failed, [6619200])

.
It runs fine though, when the rtPrintf is not commented. I reported it here. Again I made a minimal example, in the end the source was only two files, containing ~30 and ~60 lines, but it constantly and reliably crashed depending on weather the rtPrintf was commented or not.

So, later, if the program crashed, the first attempt to resolve the issue was spreading randomly rtPrintfs. This was also one of the solutions to another problem presented in the next paragraphs.

But before I come to it, I quickly have to explain the compilation process. There are two steps, first, during “compile time”, the C++ code is turned into binaries and the OptiX source into intermediate .ptx files. Those contain sort of a GPU assembler, which is then compiled during runtime by the NVIDIA GPU driver into actual binaries executed on the device. This is triggered by a C++ function call, usually context->compile().

Now, the problem is that these context->compile()s don’t return always. Sometimes they run until the host memory is full. Once it helped to spread calls to the mentioned rtPrintf in the code, another time the resolution was an extra RT_CALLABLE_PROGRAM construct, report with additional information here.

Generally those problems are painful and demotivating. Especially taking into account, that it seems like NVIDIA doesn’t care, at least they didn’t answer any of my reports. But the reason for this could be also, that they are phasing out OptiX already due to little success. Any way, it was certainly the last time I used OptiX and I don’t recommend anybody to start with it.

Real Time 3d Mandelbulb

May 18th, 2014
Render of a 3d Mandelbulb

Render of a 3d Mandelbulb

It’s actually already almost one year since I finished the work on an Erasmus project in Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. The goal was to speed up the computation of distance estimated 3d fractals in a way so that they could be computed in real time and therefore make it possible to explore them in an interactive fly through program.

Fractals are graphics produced by recursive mathematical formulas. Sine the graphics are purely based on math, one can zoom in infinitely into them without loosing quality, well – as long as the float precision is enough. One classical 2d fractal is the Mandelbrot. Some years ago a formula for a 3d Fractal was found that resembles a Mandelbrot and the structure was called Mandelbulb.

Although there already exist programs that do the fractal computation on the graphics card, none of the ones I found was able to do it in acceptable quality and real time. Some of them produced nicer images, but at the cost of having long rendering times, others where sort of interactive, but the quality was bad.

I first implemented a quick proof of concept using NVIDIA OptiX, based on their Julia example, but OptiX quickly showed its limitations, especially when I started to work on a method to speed the thing up. So I switched to NVIDIA CUDA and was satisfied with that decision (and anyway, as I will blog soon, I recommend to stay away from OptiX as far as possible : ).

 

I’ll explain in a few sentences how the rendering works, details for the traditional method can be found on the page of Mikael Hvidtfeldt Christensen and for both, the traditional and improved one  in my report linked below.

Figure explaining ray marching

ray marching

There is a function, which returns the maximum lower bound for the distance to the fractal, called the distance estimator (DE). When walking along a ray, for instance shot by the camera, it is safe to walk this distance, because we have the guarantee that the fractal won’t intersect the ray in this interval. After one step, the distance is estimated again and we march as long, as the estimated distance is above a certain threshold.

My idea to speed up the rendering was to decrease the amount of computation by letting neighbouring rays “ride” on the previous rays.

Principle of the new algorithm

Principle of the new algorithm

This works in two passes, first, “primary” rays are shot with a distance of several pixels to each other, recording the DE values. Secondly, the neighbours, called secondary rays in the figure, are shot. Those can use the information calculated in the first pass to jump straight to the end of the stepping. So, that’s it, in short. Don’t confuse the terms primary and secondary rays with bouncing light of ray tracing here.

Benchmarks of the new algorithm compared to the old one from the report

Benchmarks of the new algorithm compared to the old one from the report

Comparing the traditional ray marching algorithm with the new, faster one, shows a speed up of up to 100% and interactive exploration in almost all views without shadows. It would be probably possible to also implement this speed up for shadow rays, but I had no time to do it. Unfortunately there are some artefacts due to the ray “riding”, details can be found in the report. If you are interested into the source code, please write me a message.

Merging Ray Tracing and Rasterization in Mixed Reality

January 5th, 2013
Reflection Scene rendered by our combined renderer

Reflection Scene rendered by our combined renderer

I’ve been studying computer sciences for three years and recently I finished writing my bachelor thesis. The topic was implementing reflections and refractions in the context of mixed reality. Basically, mixed reality means adding virtual objects into a video stream (of real environment). One of the goals is to make the resulting images look as realistic as possible. Naturally this includes reflection and refraction effects.

In my work I utilise the framework implemented in the RESHADE project. There was already a mixed reality renderer based on a Direct3D rasterizer. My task was to work on a ray tracer using OptiX and merge the resulting image with the rasterizer’s image. OptiX provides a ray tracing framework for the graphics card.

Glass Bunny Scene

Glass Bunny Scene

Generally a ray tracer is slower than a rasterizer, but it has better quality with reflections and refractions. Because of that, we used a combined method. The ray tracer is working only on transparent and reflecting surfaces. This is achieved by a mask, which is created by the rasterizer in a separate render pass. This mask indicates, where reflecting or refracting objects are.

Especially with virtual flat mirrors there are very strong artefacts (see reflection scene, right mirror). This is due to lack of information. We are using the video frame, the environment map and the textured model of the real scene to gather information for the reflected ray.

Other problems we encountered were artefacts due to different shading algorithms in the rasterizer and ray tracer, and various issues with implementation due to the tone mapper.

When I was more or less finished with my work, I discovered that somebody else in the project was working on the implementation of reflections and refractions using the rasterizer. This was cool, because we were able to compare the results. Usually rasterizing is much faster than ray tracing. Surprisingly this was not the case with all scenarios. The reflection scene (first image) was faster with the combined method, the transparent bunny was slower. Especially with the bunny scene, I believe that the main drawback in speed was accuracy. The ray tracer also computes inner reflections, which causes a lot of additional work. I didn’t manage to benchmark this (rendering without inner reflections), because I was running out of time, but maybe I will do it yet..

Thanks to Michael Wimmer for making this work possible and special thanks to Martin Knecht for being an excellent supervisor and helping with all the questions :).

Finally, if you are interested into more details, here you can find the thesis..

Lindenmayer brush for Krita

January 24th, 2012

This term i had a course about fractals on the university. We also had to write code for a submission and the lecturer made the technique and topic free to choose. So I chose to make a lindenmayer brush for krita, because I planed to do so since the first university year, where I heard of lindenmayer systems the first time.

I quickly coded something together, so that I was able to prove, that my idea would work.

Lindenmayer systems are some kind of a grammar, they work like this: You have an alphabet of letters, in this case these letters are simple short lines, then you have productions and a rule: Always produce all letters. These productions eat one letter and produce ether no, one or several new letters. There are several classes of such productions, one of the simplest would be “A -> AA”. More sophisticated productions, like in the brush, can contain parameters, if clauses, calculations, random values etc. Basically it would be possible to have several different productions, but I chose to have only one and in turn make it more powerful.

Here is an example of a production, it is used in one of the brushes:

if{letter[branched] == false} {
newLetter = newLetter();
newLetter[position] = variant(letter[endPosition]);
newLetter[angle] = variant(newLetter[angleToSun]);
newLetter[length] = 5;
letter[branched] = bool(true);
}

if{letter[age] > 1} {
letter.delete();
}

It actually creates just a line.

At first the productions were plain C++ code, but that is very cumbersome, as you have to build, install and start krita for testing. The next thing I tried, was to use QtScript and write the productions in ECMAScript (also called JavaScript). It took about 5 to 7 hours until I proved, that it was way to slow.

So I decided to implement my own little scripting language. The interpreter is about 700 lines of code, including some tests. It’s certainly not as powerful, as ECMAScript, but it’s fast and okayish for this use case.

There is an if clause, which supports &&, there is a rand() function, a function for mixing angles, some very basic math, bool and float data types, you can create new letters and delete old ones. It’s possible to write new parameters (“branched” in the code above), edit some default ones (position, angle, length..), which will be used for drawing and access some computed ones (endPosition, angleToSun, distanceToSun, age..).

I have to write some documentation, expand the possibilities of the language and work on the configuration interface. But for now you can already test the current code, it’s in the krita-lbrush-adamc branch in the calligra repository.

Here is a final picture..

The presets for this brushes are included in the repository :)

Chawah, Final update a little latish..

January 24th, 2012

I had lots of things to do, no time etc etc. You know the excuses. But now I want to write another blog about a new Lindenmayer brush for Krita, and though have the motivation to catch up with old posts..

Well, we added loads of new features, mainly graphical ones:

  • lens  flares and sun dazzle effect
  • moving space dust (white circles), which are moving randomly, this is an simple particle system.
  • explosion and fire stream effects (more complicated particle systems)
  • environment mapping (on the ships and station)
  • bloom
  • music and sound effects
  • some power ups (armor, rockets, boost)

Here is a video, we made for the presentation. Unfortunately it’s low quality, I hope to get a better one tomorrow, but it’s probably gone..

Update: We found a better HD quality Video :)

Chawah Progress

June 4th, 2011

More than one month since my last post and we (Felix and me) are quite satisfied with our progress. There is some basic game logic (you can destroy the other ship and then the game restarts), health display and physics. We got all points at our first submission and currently we are starting implementing the effects. Environment mapping is already in place.

I’ve made a short video, where you can see bullet physics in action (at the end of the video you can see bullet debug mode enabled).

Music by Bézèd’h, music and video are CC licensed.

First chawah screenshots

April 28th, 2011

Unfortunatly I hadn’t time for Krita any time recently. I had to work and do stuff for university. I will focus more on Krita in summer again..

This term i’m attending the second computer graphics course in my university. The goal is to program a 3d game in OpenGL. We (Felix and me) chose to program a split screen flight duel game, as this is a simple game concept, but it’s still very extensible graphics and game logic wise.

The first step was to setup OpenGL etc. (GLEW, GLFW), which produced this first screen shot in begin of April.
First Chawah screen shot

We have worked hard and now we have implemented model loading (Assimp), shading, texturing, controls and split screen. Looks good for our first deadline :)
First Chawah screen shot

Next steps will be to implement some more game logic, in game display of hull state, frags and menu and then physics. We will use CEGUI and Bullet for these tasks..

A new curve widget for Krita

August 30th, 2010

I’m coding right now on a new curve widget. Here are some screen-shots of the still unfinished work:
freehand curve
cubic curve
linear curve
another cubic curve

There are no icons yet, but enkithan promised to create some, thanks ;). It’s currently not yet possible to extract the curves as data and i still have to port the current krita curve (some kind of function curve made by Dmitry Kazakov) to this new widget and integrate it in Krita.

I was told, that Dmitry has created an extendible api. If i can reuse that, it would be possible to replace all widgets at once, which in turn would mean, that the new curve could appear in Krita 2.3. Unfortunately i broke my ankle last week, while climbing in Croatia, and i have to undergo a surgery next Thursday or Friday, so maybe i won’t be able to code in the next week.